SSH Commands List for Beginners

ls
Displays everything in the current directory

ls -a
Displays all files, including hidden

ls -l
Displays all files, along with the size and timestamp

tar -zxpf
Uncompresses tar.gz files

tar -xpf
Uncompresses .tar files

gunzip
Uncompresses .gz files

cp
Copies a file to a new file

mv
Moves a file to a new file, or rename

mkdir
Creates a directory

rmdir
Deletes a directory

rm
Deletes a file

rm -rf
Deletes a directory

cd
Moves to a directory

cd ..
Moves to a lower directory

cd ~
Moves to your home directory

cd –
Moves to the previous directory

pwd
Displays the current directory

pico
Edits a file

ftp
Connect to a FTP server

lynx
View a webpage

df
Displays the hard drive stats

quota
Displays your quota

uptime
Displays the uptime of the server

uname -a
Displays the operating system stats

whoami
Displays your info

who
Displays others connected to the server

last
Displays the last login

whereis
Tells where a file is located

BitchX
IRC Client

mail
Check your email

ps -x
Displays processes your running

ps -a
Displays all processes running

ps -ux
Displays running processes, with CPU/Memory usage

kill
Kills a process

kill -9
Kills an eggdrop process

killall
Kills all running process of the same type

whatis
Description of commands

man
Displays help on the command

nano
Same as Pico

Top
gives an overall view of what is going on with the server including memory usage, serve load and running processes q to exit top

sar -q
gives a report of the process list, 1 minute and 5 minute average load every 10 minutes since midnight server time

tar -zcf filename.tar.gz file
Tars up the file or directory of your choice, replace filename.tar.gz with the name you want your tar file to have with the tar.gz extension on the end and replace file with the file or directory you want to tar up. Can also use a path/to/file for both.

updatedb
Updates the locate/search DB.

netstat -n -p
Useful to see who is connected to your server, this also resolves hostnames to IP addresses and the -p switch shows you what each person connected is doing and provides a PID for it if there is one… useful if you need to kill something

find / -user username
Replace username with a username of one of your account to find all the files that belong to them. Also useful to add the |more switch so you can scroll one screen at a time. Ever have a client who seems to show a lot more files than are actually in their home directory? This is how you find those files and fix them. Common problem is cpmove files that don’t get properly deleted and get added to a users account.

/scripts/pkgacct2 username
Replace username with a user on your system. This should be done from the home directory. Useful for manually backing up an account if whm copy account doesn’t work. Then just move (mv) the file to a home directory accessible via the web and
chown user.user filename
and chmod to 750 or 755 and you can wget it from a different server if need be.

/scripts/restorepkg username
Once you’ve got the file and need to unpack it you use this command. The file should be in the /home directory to use this though. Remember folks. username. not cpmove-username.tar.gz

crontab -e
edit the crontab file and see what is set to run in there.

help
Such as tar help, similar to man it digs up info on any given command.

tail -10 filename
gives you the last 10 lines of a file. Can change the # to whatever you want.

cp -R fileordirectory path/to/destination.
the -R allows you to copy an entire directory to somewhere else.

kill -9
not just for eggdrops it’s called a hard kill and handy for killing off any stubborn process that refuses to die.

whereis
can also use locate or find (although locate is faster)

killall
not just for killing programs.. you can also killall to kill all processes being run by a user. Handy if you have an abuser eating up system resources.

RESTART SERVICES:

service (service name) restart

Stop a service:
service (service name) stop

Start a service:
service (service name) start

Status (doesn’t work on all):
service (service name) status

On a RedHat CPanel server, here are the useful services:
bandmin
chkservd
cpanel
crond
exim
httpd
mysql
named
proftpd

CRON INFO:
Root crontab:

crontab -e

To edit a users cron jobs

crontab -u username -e

Replace username with the actual username of the client you want to edit.

/scripts/adddns Add a Dns Entry
/scripts/addfpmail Install Frontpage Mail Exts
/scripts/addservlets Add JavaServlets to an account (jsp plugin required)
/scripts/adduser Add a User
/scripts/admin Run WHM Lite
/scripts/apachelimits Add Rlimits (cpu and mem limits) to apache.
/scripts/dnstransfer Resync with a master DNS Server
/scripts/editquota Edit A User’s Quota
/scripts/finddev Search For Trojans in /dev
/scripts/findtrojans Locate Trojan Horses
Suggest Usage
/scripts/findtrojans < /var/log/trojans
/scripts/fixtrojans < /var/log/trojans
/scripts/fixcartwithsuexec Make Interchange work with suexec
/scripts/fixinterchange Fix Most Problems with Interchange
/scripts/fixtrojans Run on a trojans horse file created by findtrojans to remove them
/scripts/fixwebalizer Run this if a user’s stats stop working
/scripts/fixvaliases Fix a broken valias file
/scripts/hdparamify Turn on DMA and 32bit IDE hard drive access (once per boot)
/scripts/initquotas Re-scan quotas. Usually fixes Disk space display problems
/scripts/initsuexec Turn on SUEXEC (probably a bad idea)
/scripts/installzendopt Fetch + Install Zend Optimizer
/scripts/ipusage Display Ipusage Report
/scripts/killacct Terminate an Account
/scripts/killbadrpms Delete “Security Problem Infested RPMS”
/scripts/mailperm Fix Various Mail Permission Problems
/scripts/mailtroubleshoot Attempt to Troubleshoot a Mail Problem
/scripts/mysqlpasswd Change a Mysql Password
/scripts/quicksecure Kill Potential Security Problem Services
/scripts/rebuildippool Rebuild Ip Address Pool
/scripts/remdefssl Delete Nasty SSL entry in apache default httpd.conf
/scripts/restartsrv Restart a Service (valid services: httpd,proftpd,exim,sshd,cppop,bind,mysql)
/scripts/rpmup Syncup Security Updates from RedHat/Mandrake
/scripts/runlogsnow Force a webalizer/analog update.
/scripts/secureit Remove non-important suid binaries
/scripts/setupfp4 Install Frontpage 4+ on an account.
/scripts/simpleps Return a Simple process list. Useful for finding where cgi scripts are running from.
/scripts/suspendacct Suspend an account
/scripts/sysup Syncup Cpanel RPM Updates
/scripts/ulimitnamed RH 6 only. Install a version of bind to handle many many zones.
/scripts/unblockip Unblock an IP
/scripts/unsuspendacct UnSuspend an account
/scripts/upcp Update Cpanel
/scripts/updatenow Update /scripts
/scripts/wwwacct Create a New Account

Top – gives an overall view of what is going on with the server including memory usage, serve load and running processes “q” to exit top

sar -q gives a report of the process list, 1 minute and 5 minute average load every 10 minutes since midnight server time

tar -zcf filename.tar.gz file
Tars up the file or directory of your choice, replace filename.tar.gz with the name you want your tar file to have…with the tar.gz extension on the end and replace file with the file or directory you want to tar up. Can also use a path/to/file for both.

netstat -n -p
Useful to see who is connected to your server, this also resolves hostnames to IP addresses and the -p switch shows you what each person connected is doing and provides a PID for it if there is one… useful if you need to kill something

find / -user username
Replace username with a username of one of your account to find all the files that belong to them. Also useful to add the |more switch so you can scroll one screen at a time. Ever have a client who seems to show a lot more files than are actually in their home directory? This is how you find those files and fix them. Common problem is cpmove files that don’t get properly deleted and get added to a users account.

/scripts/pkgacct2 username
Replace username with a user on your system. This should be done from the home directory. Useful for manually backing up an account if whm copy account doesn’t work. Then just move (mv) the file to a home directory accessible via the web and
chown user.user filename
and chmod to 750 or 755 and you can wget it from a different server if need be.

/scripts/restorepkg username
Once you’ve got the file and need to unpack it you use this command. The file should be in the /home directory to use this though. Remember folks…. username…. not cpmove-username.tar.gz

crontab -e
edit the crontab file and see what is set to run in there.

–help
Such as tar –help, similar to man it digs up info on any given command.

tail -10 filename
gives you the last 10 lines of a file. Can change the # to whatever you want.

cp -R fileordirectory path/to/destination.
the -R allows you to copy an entire directory to somewhere else.

kill -9
not just for eggdrops… it’s called a “hard kill” and handy for killing off any stubborn process that refuses to die.

whereis
can also use locate or find (although locate is faster)

killall
not just for killing programs.. you can also killall to kill all processes being run by a user. Handy if you have an abuser eating up system resources.

Restart services:

service (service name) restart

Stop a service:
service (service name) stop

Start a service:
service (service name) start

Status (doesn’t work on all):
service (service name) status

Useful services:
bandmin
chkservd
cpanel
crond
exim
httpd
mysql
named
proftpd

Root crontab:

crontab -e

To edit a users cron jobs

crontab -u username -e

Replace username with the actual username of the client you want to edit.

reboot – To restart all services there is no command available. But will do this.

mv – to rename a directory.

Delete MRTG
rpm -e nodeps `rpm -qa|grep mrtg`

Empty /tmp folder
rm -R -f /tmp/c*
rm -R -f /tmp/s*
rm -R -f /tmp/p*
rm -R -f /tmp/*_*
rm -R -f /tmp/*-*

December 4, 2014   1348    Linux, SSH  
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